Monthly Archives: June 2014

Stylus-based Android note app that syncs with Google Drive

What I wanted

Stylus based note taking app which can take notes as good as S Note, AND save to and open from Drive / sync with Drive, allowing edit of Drive files from within app or from within Drive itself.

Apps tested

S Note

I can sync the files manually into Drive, but I won’t be able to retrieve them in a nice way in the future because they are stored only as thumbnails.

LectureNotes

Stylus features:

  • Very good (pressure sensitive, different styles, etc.)
  • Can cut and move pieces

Export/import:

    • Can export single pages as pgn
    • Can export multiple pages as .zip
  • This .zip file contains a bunch of .png files. You can import them from within the app, but you can’t go into Google Drive and open the file with your app. If you import it and edit, then upload again, it will create another copy with the same name. It can’t edit and save directly. In addition, importing seems to be done only in an existing notebook, not creating a new notebook.
  • Can export multiple pages as PDF to Drive, but can’t edit those PDF files.

Summary benefits:

  • Saves in PNG
  • Very good stylus functions

Summary negatives:

  • Can not edit files with multiple pages because 1) it can’t edit pdf files, and 2) multiple page files are saved as a zip file containing multiple .png files, which makes it impossible to edit them in Drive (although you can of course edit them in the note app by downloading from within app, editing, then uploading – but very clumsy way to do that)

To solve this, I installed the app FolderSync, which syncs a LectureNotes folder with a Google Drive folder. I’ve tested both ways and it works well.

Solution

Use LectureNotes and FolderSync together, this fulfills all criteria.

(Note: I could not do this with the app S Note since it saves the files in a custom format.)

(Note 2: This method may be possible with other note taking apps than LectureNotes, but I think LectureNotes was good enough so I did not test others. Another contender may be Papyrus – but I have not checked how and in which file format it saves its notes. If it is PNG or another common file format, then the method would work just as well on it, or any other note taking app.)

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Book Sum: Multipliers by Liz Wizeman – how you can lead and manage to get the best out of your team

Multipliers assume:

  • Others are smart enough to figure things out
  • Intelligence can be grown

Using multiplier approach, you will make people around you more successful. Did not do research on whether it makes YOU more successful [but seems likely, based on the fact that most people I see who are highly successful seem to operate from a multiplier mindset, like the investor in our company, a true multiplier – he made me feel incredibly motivated and driven after his comment: “I am not worried as long as you are here”.]

5 types of multipliers:

Talent Magnet – leads by attracting and growing talent

Makes people around them grow by finding their “hidden talents” and strengths, gives responsibilities based on this and helps them grow their natural talents, and showcases their success to others in the organization, and allows them to grow into other roles in the organization (unlike the “Empire Builder” who wants to build an empire – but often it becomes an empire of zombies not producing anything, which makes the Empire Builder crave and demand more and more resources which drains the organization). Then the Talent Magnet showcases their people and their successful transitions to other roles to everybody, which makes other people attracted to work in this team where you grow both personally and in your career, and this attracts more A-talent, and he gets the best team – so it becomes a good circle.

Liberator – liberates free thinking

Liberates people’s free thinking, gives them the courage to speak up, to speak their free will. Removes stress (what’s outside of your control), but amplifies pressure (expectation that you will deliver on what is within your control). But one thing is always demanded – that anything you say is not opinion, but can be backed up by data.

Challenger – challenges people to achieve great things

Presents an opportunity (or frames a problem as an opportunity, or asks tough questions which makes people question the assumptions – an example was given where a company thought itself invincible and made stupid decisions, and this professor came in and wrote a fictitious article about how the company went bankrupt), creates a challenge (measurable, probably very hard to reach so people will need to stretch their capabilities and think creatively to reach it), makes it OK to fail as long as you try your best (praise the hard work, not the result achieved, then people will continue focusing on working hard, plus this will reduce stress rather than pressure), gives people hope or instills belief that the challenge can be achieved. Lets the people rise to the challenge rather than directing them to it. Says “I know you can achieve it” and leaves it to them.

Debate Maker – facilitates debate to enable good decision and execution

Prepare by making people understand the expectation and ask them to prepare data. Make the decision making process clear (who’ll make it – either the debate maker himself or someone he/she delegated to – so that people know that, the timeframe, and the thinking or rational or rules behind which decision will win). Make them debate, even if they have the same opinions. Force people to switch sides. Make them see the other side of the coin. Demand data, not opinion. Explain the decision making process. By making people debate upfront, you prepare them for the decision – when the decision comes, they will clearly understand the reasoning behind it and focus on executing. If you haven’t debated it but just give the decision to them after discussing it in closed rooms or in your own mind, then they will debate among themselves. [Basically, you can think of it like this: People will not execute a decision without first debating it. Either you can take control over that debate by organizing it yourself and upfront, or you can leave people to debate it in uncontrolled and less productive ways themselves later.] Also, debating it thoroughly brings up important data and insights which makes the decision itself better. The organization is smart. When organizing a debate, invite all stakeholders. After the decision is made, communicate it and the rationale behind it.

Investor – the perfect delegator

Gives ownership of tough issues to others (makes it clear that that person is responsible for achieving the goal, internally and externally), invest in developing that person to aid in goal achievement (coaching, mentoring, advising, asking tough questions – but always “giving back the pen” to the people rather than coming up with the final solution), and sets clear goals and expects clear results. Don’t interfere with the natural consequences. Don’t “save” people. If they do something that will lead to failure – let it lead to failure, then discuss and learn from it. To do this safely, delegate in doses so that they can fail on the non-important stuff. This makes them grow. But also, by delegating responsibility, and making clear that you won’t save them, you force them to grow. Also, demands complete work. Gave an example: Got a report, said “Is this your best work?” multiple times and in multiple cycles, until the person said yes, and then the investor said “Good, then I’ll read it this time”. [This is the perfect delegator.]

General – what multipliers and diminishers do to lead people

  • Multipliers are not “anything goes” people. They attract A-talent, and they expect only the best results. It is an intense environment where high results are demanded. The difference is, they trust that their people can bring those results and that they can figure it out.
  • Diminishers become bottlenecks. If you are a micromanager, nothing will happen without your input. If you are stepping in all the time and doing the work, they will learn that you will save them, and they won’t stretch their capabilities or do their best. If you don’t liberate thinking, but instead get angry when opinions are voiced, they will stop taking initiative. If you make decisions by yourself and then inform people, they will start becoming reactive and just wait for your input before they do something.
  • Multipliers get 2X out from their people compared to diminishers. A diminisher may get 60% out of his/her people, a multiplier may get 120% (the extra 20% above 100% comes from resources that those people didn’t know they had, and the fact that they became more intelligent under the multiplier’s management because they were stretched and had to develop).
  • People are not either a multiplier or a diminisher – it’s a gray scale. You can be diminishing sometimes, and multiplying at other times. It seems like adapting 3 of the multiplier trends and really making those your strength is the optimum.
  • Multipliers don’t take things too seriously. They can laugh. They don’t get stressed. They make fools out of themselves and make self-deprecating jokes to make people at ease and because they simply don’t take their own ego or how others view them so seriously – they are relaxed and fun.

Other tips & tricks:

  • “Don’t deliver an A-W-K without delivering a F-I-X”
  • Give back the ownership if you step in and help.

How do you become a multiplier?

  • Doing a 30-day challenge, where you focus on one aspect only, then after the 30 days build the next aspect and so on.
  • Focus on your extremes – either improve the thing you really suck at, so it doesn’t become an obstruction, or take to the next level your already greatest strength, to achieve new heights.
  • Fix your assumptions (assume people are smart, that their intelligence can grow, that they will figure it out), and the rest will follow automatically. Multiplier behaviors are actually natural consequences of good assumptions.
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Analysis: Apple MDM Framework – building iPad management tool for schools

A couple of months ago, I discovered that some schools spend a lot of time managing iPads in their classrooms. Teachers have to take time from education to sit and configure new iPads that will be deployed to students.

So I started a little project to analyze if there was a real need, and if such a tool could easily be built.

I did 5 interviews with schools in my area to find out what their needs were. I did find that there was a need. So I moved on to the technical analysis – “What’s technically possible and how difficult is it to build?”.

I can’t publish my interviews with the schools, since that would be unethical. However, I will publish the technical research I did freely here with the hope that someone might find it useful for their purposes.

The reason I can publish it freely like this is that I have decided not to move forward with the project. The reason for that is that I’ve concluded that the Mobile Device Management (MDM) market is mature and in the process of being commoditized. For example, a lot of MDM products are being released and made available to customers for free. Apple has an MDM product built into their OS X Server. Mobile Iron, one of the market leaders, are offering K-12 student licenses for free.

Instead, I will start a new project. What it will be, I can talk about soon 🙂

Free free to download the document, and if you’re interested in asking a question or talking about this, you’re welcome to contact me. I like exchanging ideas freely 🙂

(P.S. – Mind you, this document was never written with the intent of publishing it for others. Thus, I haven’t spent much time on “finishing the edges”, so it might be a little rough. But the information in it is accurate, and references are provided wherever I make a statement.)

(P.S. 2 – I live in a country where Apple’s Device Enrollment Program doesn’t exist, hence one of the focuses of this paper is to understand what central management and device supervision features are possible even without that.)

(P.S. 3 – I have done my absolute best to reference information wherever I have got it from another source. It may be the case that I have forgotten or missed it somewhere. Remember that I originally wrote this for my own purpose, and only after decided to publish it. So if you spot a mistake somewhere, or that I forgot to reference my source in some section, I apologize and ask you to tell me by contacting me here, and I’ll add it immediately.

1. Terminology

1.1. Configuration Profile[1]

Configuration profiles are XML files that contain:

  • Security policies and restrictions
  • VPN configuration
  • Wi-Fi settings
  • Email and calendar accounts
  • Authentication credentials that permit iOS devices to work with 
your IT systems.

Distribution:

  • Via Over-the-Air Profile Delivery (or via MDM if it’s a managed device[2])
  • Via USB connection using Apple Configurator (can do it for unmanaged devices[3])
  • Via email or on a web page

Some of the settins you can control with a configuration profile[4]:

  • Passcode policies
  • Restrictions on device features (disabling the camera, for example)
  • Wi-Fi settings
  • VPN settings
  • Email server settings
  • Exchange settings
  • LDAP directory service settings
  • CalDAV calendar service settings
  • Web clips
  • Credentials and keys
  • Advanced cellular network settings

When an MDM wants to control a device, an MDM profile is created (which tells the device which MDM server to connect to for example). However, MDM profiles can be removed, unless you are using the Device Enrollment Program[5].

1.2. Managed vs. Unmanaged devices[6]

Managed = enrolled in MDM.

2. Mobile Device Management (MDM)[7] [8]

Apple has an MDM framework called Apple MDM Framework, built into each iOS, which enables MDM solutions to wirelessly configure and manage iOS devices.[9] An MDM can be cloud or on-premise.[10]

Apple has their own MDM (OS X Profile Manager), but also enables third party MDM: “iOS has a built-in MDM framework that allows third‑party MDM solutions to wirelessly interact with iOS devices [which] enables IT to select from a wide range of solutions to fit into the environment, with the confidence that all the same features are available to manage the company’s iOS devices.”[11]

3 steps to get started with MDM[12]:

  1. Select MDM provider
  2. Request an Apple Push Notification Service (APNs) certificate
  3. Enroll your organization in the program

The APNs certificate in step 2 is needed for your MDM server to talk to clients[13] over the Internet even if an app isn’t running on the devices[14].

2.1. Overview – setting up and managing devices[15]

Set-up

  • Corporate-owned 1:1 devices:
    • Manually – configure each device before giving to user
    • Provide instructions or configuration profiles (XML files containing various settings) for users to apply themselves
    • Enroll into MDM, which enables wireless and more fine-grained management – and separate the “corporate” environment from the personal one
  • Corporate owned 1:n devices:
    • Supervised with Apple Configurator and enrolled into MDM, so they can be reset (no personal settings)

Configure and manage

  • Using MDM:
    • Enroll with MDM server using “enrollment configuration profile”.
      • By user directly
      • Automatically using Device Enrollment Program
    • When admin does something through the MDM, the device receives an Apple Push Notification Service (APNs) if it has a network connection anywhere in the world.

2.2. How it works

How APNs works works[16]

The communication workflow between the MDM server and the clients (and APNs) looks like this:

The above picture comes from another MDM solution. It likely represents the standard MDM workflow looks. The MDM server communicates with both the iOS devices, and with APNs which in turn communicates with the devices.

How MDM communication protocol works[17]

During enrollment, the device provides unique identifying information to that server, which is used by the server to send messages through the Apple Push Notification Service. Long term connections from server to client, or client to server, do not exist with the design of MDM — only the connection to APNS. This long-term APNS connection is part of the Push Notifications framework supporting multiple iOS applications, not just MDM.

After enrollment, each interaction between client devices and the MDM server consists of four elements:

  1. Server requests push notification through Apple
  2. Apple pushes notification to device
  3. Device connects to server
  4. Server and client exchange commands and responses

How to get an APNs certificate[18]

It seems like the easiest way to get an APNs certificate is to request it from the OS X server, which includes the ability to get this, then extracting it from there. To do this:

  • Within the OS X’s Server app, request and install APNs certificate
  • Extract the certificate itself from the keychain. To do this, use the Keychain Access program, find the APNs certificate (likely named “APSP:<uuid>”), export it to a .p12 file.
  • Now, convert the .p12 file (which is the certificate code that you extracted) to a .pem file using the ‘openssl pkcs12’ command from within a terminal window (the full command may look like this for example: ‘openssl pkcs12 -in YourCert.p12 -out YourCert.pem’ (it will ask you to set a password to protect the .pem file)
  • Since you have password protected this .pem file, it will prompt for a pw each time you want to send a push notification. You can create an un-encrypted file to avoid this problem, but it should not be used in production. How to do that is described in the chapter “Setting up APNs” in 2011 the ios mdm protocol.

How to manually enroll a device by creating the first connection to the MDM server[19]

Using the iPhone Configuration Utility (which is a tool to create and install configuration profiles on i-devices[20] [21]), create a configuration profile that instructs the device on how to connect to the MDM server and which also contains an identity certificate for the device itself. How to do this is described in 2011 the ios mdm protocol, chapter “MDM Enrollment Profile”.

Now, install this profile on your i-devices in a number of ways[22]:

  • Through a URL
  • Mass-enroll through Apple Configurator (which also lets you install Supervision features – read about Apple Configurator in that chapter)
  • From an app that installs this profile
  • By sending SMS or email invitation

When you install this profile into your device, the device will contact the MDM server (as per the profile instructions), and exchange information needed so that they can communicate with each other in the future (to see exact information exchanged, see 2011 the ios mdm protocol chapter “The Enrollment Exchange”).

Now that the MDM server has information needed about the device, it can contact the APNs server at any time to request a connection, the APNs server will ask the device to connect to the server, and the server can send the commands that the protocol allows, over the air.

Over-the-air enrollment[23]

The above chapter generally describes how enrollment works. It is possible to manually enroll devices in this way using USB cables. But it is also possible to build a more advanced over-the-air enrollment server. How do this is described in Over-the-Air Profile Delivery and Configuration, chapter “Creating a Profile Server for Over-The-Air Enrollment and Configuration”.

The available commands in MDM

The list of available commands below are taken from Appendix A in 2011 the ios mdm protocol:

Control Commands

  • Device Lock
  • Erase Device
  • Clear Passcode

Device Queries

  • Security Information
  • Installed Application List
  • Device Information
  • Certificate List
  • Profile List
  • Provisioning Profile List
  • Restrictions List

Device Configuration

  • Install Profile
  • Remove Profile
  • Install Provisioning Profile
  • Remove Provisioning Profile

Device to Server Commands

  • Authenticate
  • Token Update

One of the most interesting aspects that an MDM can control seems to be the profile. With profiles, some of the more interesting things an MDM can control are (information from an earlier chapter in this document):

  • Email and calendar accounts (install Google Apps domain on all devices, or their own unique Apple IDs)
  • Restrictions on device features (disabling the camera, for example)
  • Email server settings
  • Exchange settings
  • Web clips
  • Credentials and keys

2.3. Device supervision

You can, in addition to MDM, enable supervision of devices your organization owns. Then you get more control (full list of features below).

Supervision only possible if you use Apple’s Device Enrollment Program (DEP) or Apple Configurator[24]. There is no other way to use over-the-air supervision outside of DEP[25]. A logical way to enable device supervision would be during the enrollment process. You use Apple Configurator to mass-distribute your MDM Profile to devices, while simultaneously enabling device supervision. After this, there is no need to touch your devices again – they can here-on after be managed over the air with supervision through MDM server.

However, note that enabling supervised mode will initiate a factory reset on the device, and so should not be enabled on personally-owned devices.[26]

Supervision enables the following features[27]:

  • Enable and manage Single App Mode (typical for kiosk devices).
  • Configure Accessibility settings.
  • Allow or disable access to iMessage.
  • Allow or disable access to Game Center.
  • Allow or or prevent users from deleting apps.
  • Allow or disable access to iBooks Store.
  • Prevent access to ebooks flagged erotica in the iBooks Store.
  • Enable or disable Siri’s Profanity Filter.
  • Allow or or prevent manual install of configuration profiles (including unauthorized or malicious profiles).
  • Configure a global proxy server for all installed web browsers.
  • Allow or prevent host pairing (iTunes).
  • Allow or or prevent pairing with computers for content sync.
  • Restrict AirPlay connections with a whitelist of acceptable device and enter a passcode for those devices. This allows users access to those devices without needing to know the passcode.
  • Allow or disable access to AirDrop.
  • Allow or prevent users from modifying account information.
  • Allow or prevent users from changing cellular data settings.
  • Allow or disable access to Find My Friends (if installed).
  • Enable or disable access to Activation Lock.
  • Allow silent or background install or update of apps without user interaction.

2.4. Device Enrollment Program (DEP)

DEP is used to deploy institution-owned iOS devices. Requires an Apple Customer Number[28] and available only to businesses and educational institutions in US that purchase devices directly from Apple.[29]

Enables following features in your OS X or 3rd party MDM solution[30] [31]:

  • Device supervision
  • Automatic MDM enrollment of devices without touching or prepping them
  • Mandatory configuration / MDM profile
  • Lockable MDM settings
  • Skipping steps in the Setup Assistant

Steps to get started[32] [33]:

  • At deploy.apple.com, create a DEP account (input your institutions details, verify that you are allowed to do enrollment)
  • Apple manually calls and checks institution head (for example principal), then approves
  • You get admin access to deploy.apple.com, create a dedicated Apple ID for managing this institution’s devices, access a virtual server, and link it to your MDM server (MDM server must be known to Apple).
  • Apple verifies and authorizes your MDM server.[34]
  • This allows you to assign devices and user profiles to your MDM servers by Apple order number (search old order numbers on Apple.com) or serial number. (Here’s probably where you need to have purchased them directly from Apple and in US.)
  • In your MDM server, assign user profiles to the programme (so that when these users complete initial setup, the settings you have specified are auto-set on those devices).

2.5. Apple Configurator vs. MDM

Apple Configurator is designed to manage multiple (up to 30) devices simultaneously via USB connection to a Mac[35]. Features include: activate devices, define and apply configurations, supervise, install apps, and update devices to the latest iOS. It can also turn on or off Device Supervision[36].

You can liken it to an MDM solution with device supervision but without over the air capabilities (own analysis).

MDM enables over the air features. If you have an MDM, one of the benefits of also using Apple Configurator is that it somewhat automates the enrollment process. Instead of pushing out the MDM profiles to devices one by one, you can mass-push out 30 configurations at once. However, you still need to physically connect those devices to a Mac which has Apple Configurator on it. The other main benefit is that Apple Configurator can enable the device supervision features for the MDM.[37]

After doing the initial MDM enrollment and enabling supervised mode through Apple Configurator, there is no need to connect it back again[38] (unless you want to use some of the separate, non-MDM Apple Configurator features which are not relevant to what we are trying to achieve).

2.6. OS X Server Profile Manager[39]

In addition to supporting 3rd party MDM products, Apple has its own MDM product built into OS X Server. Features include web-based admin, and self-service user portal for enrolling devices/ downloading configuration profiles.

In Apple’s own words: “[Apple] supports third party MDM solutions [which] offer support for a variety of server platforms, management consoles, workflow options, and pricing structures [so] whether your institution is looking for a cloud‑hosted solution or a server that’s installed on‑premise, you [can choose].”[40]

2.7. Volume Purchase Program (VPP)[41]

VPP allows:

  • Purchase apps in volume
  • Use 3rd party MDM to distribute to many devices centrally, incl. notification messages asking them to install apps purchased for them, configure, and remove apps.

However, the VPP not yet available in Sweden – and no info about if and when it will be.[42]

2.8. Full list of MDM features

http://www.enterpriseios.com/wiki/Comparison_MDM_Providers

3. Q&A

3.1. Can you push apps silently over the air?

Can you push install apps OTA with MDM on supervised devices (if you have activated supervision via Apple Configurator, not using DEP)? Meraki Whitepaper (Deploying Apple iOS in Education, chapter 10) says that on “[s]upervised devices [you] must be re-connected to Apple Configurator for app updates and […] to remove any unsanctioned apps on the device.”

Yes. Meraki’s whitepaper is wrong. Meraki themselves responded on a support question from me asking the above: “Apps can be installed over the air without enrolling in the Device Enrollment Program with Apple, you only need to create a Systems Manager network and enroll your devices to push apps over the air.”

The question was also asked in other forums, and here are some excerpts from responses:

“Over the air app installation is part of the MDM specification. On unsupervised devices, the device user is prompted with a confirmation dialog (and often for Apple ID and password). On supervised devices, there is no confirmation (assuming the Apple ID has been set up already).

It does not matter how the device was supervised. We’ve been doing this for a year, long before DEP was introduced. I don’t know why Meraki is confused.”[43]

“The Apple device enrollment program will not keep you from distributing applications with the MaaS360 web portal. You will have the ability to distribute any free iOS application from the portal to Apple devices. If you would like to distribute paid for applications you will need the Volume Purchase Program to associate paid apps with licenses.”[44]

4. Analysis

In order to do what we want to do for schools, devices need to be supervised, which means that for schools in Sweden (since Apple’s Device Enrollment Program, which is a way to enable device supervision over the air, isn’t available in Sweden), we have to enroll the devices into our MDM using Apple Configurator, while simultaneously enabling supervised mode. They won’t have to be configured with Apple Configurator again – just once, because here-on after, we will have access to all the supervision features that Apple provides, which is enough to do all we want to do with the school’s devices.

In order to create an MDM solution for clients, we actually only need the an MDM server which can create an MDM profile according to Apple’s standards.

For each device that installs this profile, the server will be able to see and communicate with those devices centrally.

We don’t have to do anything on the school’s network. The only thing required is that they have internet. We can easily create a cloud server. No infrastructure needed. Just a web portal for logging in to that server, and a user interface to manage those devices.

(By the way, check out this cool product: www.innervare.com)

[1] “iOS Deployment Technical Reference – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <http://images.apple.com/ipad/business/docs/iOS_Deployment_Technical_Reference_EN_May14.pdf>

[2] “iOS Enterprise Deployment Overview Get started … – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Enteprise_Deployment_Overview_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[3] “iOS Enterprise Deployment Overview Get started … – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Enteprise_Deployment_Overview_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[4] “Over-the-Air Profile Delivery and Configuration – Apple …” 2014. 31 May. 2014 <https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/networkinginternet/conceptual/iphoneotaconfiguration/iPhoneOTAConfiguration.pdf>

[5] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and DEP from Apple.” 31 May. 2014 – comments section where an Airwatch representative responds to a question <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2014/02/7-questions-answered-airwatch-device-enrollment-program-apple/>

[6] “iOS Enterprise Deployment Overview Get started … – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Enteprise_Deployment_Overview_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[7] “Apple – iPhone in Business – IT Center – Deployment.” 2014. 24 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/it/deployment.html>

[8] 2013. Apple – iPhone in Business – IT Center – Mobile Device …https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/it/management.html.

[9] “iOS Enterprise Deployment Overview Get started … – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Enteprise_Deployment_Overview_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[10] 2013. Apple – iPhone in Business – IT Center – Mobile Device …https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/it/management.html.

[11] 2013. Apple – iPhone in Business – IT Center – Mobile Device …https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/it/management.html.

[12] “Apple – iPhone in Business – IT Center – Mobile Device …” 2013. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/it/management.html>

[13] “iOS Deployment Technical Reference – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <http://images.apple.com/ipad/business/docs/iOS_Deployment_Technical_Reference_EN_May14.pdf>

[14] ali hafizji. “Apple Push Notification Services in iOS 6 Tutorial: Part 1/2 …” 2013. 27 May. 2014 <http://www.raywenderlich.com/32960/apple-push-notification-services-in-ios-6-tutorial-part-1>

[15] “iOS Enterprise Deployment Overview Get started … – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Enteprise_Deployment_Overview_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[16] “Mobile Device Management Workflow – BitDefender.” 2013. 28 May. 2014 <http://www.bitdefender.com/support/mobile-device-management-workflow-1138.html>

[17] “2011 THE IOS MDM PROTOCOL – Black Hat.” 2011. 29 May. 2014 <https://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-11/Schuetz/BH_US_11_Schuetz_InsideAppleMDM_WP.pdf>

[18] “2011 THE IOS MDM PROTOCOL – Black Hat.” 2011. 31 May. 2014 <https://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-11/Schuetz/BH_US_11_Schuetz_InsideAppleMDM_WP.pdf>

[19] “2011 THE IOS MDM PROTOCOL – Black Hat.” 2011. 31 May. 2014 <https://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-11/Schuetz/BH_US_11_Schuetz_InsideAppleMDM_WP.pdf>

[20] “iPhone Configuration Utility 3.6.2 for Windows – Apple Support.” 2012. 31 May. 2014 <http://support.apple.com/kb/dl1466>

[21] “2011 THE IOS MDM PROTOCOL – Black Hat.” 2011. 31 May. 2014 <https://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-11/Schuetz/BH_US_11_Schuetz_InsideAppleMDM_WP.pdf>

[22] “Getting Started with Cisco Meraki Systems … – YouTube.” 31 May. 2014 – video explaining how you can create a certificate signing request from Meraki’s website, upload it to Apple’s website and get the actual certificate, then upload it again on Meraki’s website <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbq6d5v7xRc>

[23] “Over-the-Air Profile Delivery and Configuration – Apple …” 2014. 31 May. 2014 <https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/networkinginternet/conceptual/iphoneotaconfiguration/iPhoneOTAConfiguration.pdf>

[24] “iOS Enterprise Deployment Overview Get started … – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iOS_Enteprise_Deployment_Overview_EN_Feb14.pdf> – Chapter: “Supervised Devices”

[25] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and DEP from Apple.” 31 May. 2014 <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2014/02/7-questions-answered-airwatch-device-enrollment-program-apple/>

[26] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and Apple Configurator.” 31 May. 2014 <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2013/12/apple-configurator-airwatch-whats-difference/>

[27] “Why Apple’s new Device Enrollment Program is a game …” 27 May. 2014 <http://www.citeworld.com/mobile/23045/apple-device-enrollment-program-supervision-mdm-emm-setup-deployment>

[28] “iOS Deployment Technical Reference – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <http://images.apple.com/ipad/business/docs/iOS_Deployment_Technical_Reference_EN_May14.pdf>

[29] “Device Enrollment Program Guide – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/DEP_Business_Guide_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[30] “iOS Deployment Technical Reference – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <http://images.apple.com/ipad/business/docs/iOS_Deployment_Technical_Reference_EN_May14.pdf>

[31] “Apple – Education – IT – Device Enrollment Program.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/education/it/dep/>

[32] “Device Enrollment Program Guide – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/DEP_Business_Guide_EN_Feb14.pdf>

[33] “Apple – Education – IT – Device Enrollment Program.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/education/it/dep/>

[34] “Apple Deployment Programs.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <https://deploy.apple.com/> – step 2, “Link to your MDM solution”

[35] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and Apple Configurator.” 31 May. 2014 <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2013/12/apple-configurator-airwatch-whats-difference/>

[36] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and Apple Configurator.” 31 May. 2014 <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2013/12/apple-configurator-airwatch-whats-difference/>

[37] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and Apple Configurator.” 31 May. 2014 <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2013/12/apple-configurator-airwatch-whats-difference/>

[38] “7 questions answered about AirWatch and Apple Configurator.” 31 May. 2014 – Reply by Scott Solomon, an Airwatch rep, to a comment question. <http://blogs.air-watch.com/2013/12/apple-configurator-airwatch-whats-difference/>

[39] “iOS Education Deployment Overview – Apple.” 2014. 25 May. 2014 <http://images.apple.com/education/docs/EDU_Deployment_Overview_EN_Mar14.pdf>

[40] “Apple – IT.” 2007. 25 May. 2014 <http://www.apple.com/education/it/>

[41] “Apple – iPhone in Business – IT Center – Deployment.” 2014. 24 May. 2014 <https://www.apple.com/iphone/business/it/deployment.html>

[42] Facebook group and problem interviews done

[43] “Can MDM push-install apps over-the-air? | Enterprise iOS.” 2014. 2 Jun. 2014 <http://www.enterpriseios.com/forum/topic/Can_MDM_push_install_apps_over_the_air>

[44] Maas360 support ticket response in email

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